CHAPTER 45 PUBLIC OFFENSES

 

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45.01 ASSAULT. No person shall, without justification, commit any of the following:
1. Pain or Injury. Any act which is intended to cause pain or injury to, or which is intended to result in physical contact which will be insulting or offensive to another, coupled with the apparent ability to execute the act.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 708.1 [1])
2. Threat of Pain or Injury. Any act which is intended to place another in fear of immediate physical contact which will be painful, injurious, insulting, or offensive, coupled with the apparent ability to execute the act.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 708.1 [2])
However, where the person doing any of the above enumerated acts, and such other person, are voluntary participants in a sport, social or other activity, not in itself criminal, and such act is a reasonably foreseeable incident of such sport or activity, and does not create an unreasonable risk or serious injury or breach of the peace, the act is not an assault. Provided, where the person doing any of the above enumerated acts is employed by a school district or accredited nonpublic school, or is an area education agency staff member who provides services to a school or school district, and intervenes in a fight or physical struggle, or other disruptive situation that takes place in the presence of the employee or staff member performing employment duties in a school building, on school grounds or at an official school function regardless of the location, the act is not an assault, whether the fight or physical struggle or other disruptive situation is between students or other individuals if the degree and the force of the intervention is reasonably necessary to restore order and to protect the safety of those assembled.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 708.1)
 


45.02 HARASSMENT. No person shall commit harassment.
1. A person commits harassment when, with intent to intimidate, annoy or alarm another person, the person does any of the following:
A. Communicates with another by telephone, telegraph, writing or via electronic communication without legitimate purpose and in a manner likely to cause the other person annoyance or harm.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 708.7)
B. Places any simulated explosive or simulated incendiary device in or near any building, vehicle, airplane, railroad engine or railroad car, or boat occupied by such other person.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 708.7)
C. Orders merchandise or services in the name of another, or to be delivered to another, without such other person’s knowledge or consent.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 708.7)
D. Reports or causes to be reported false information to a law enforcement authority implicating another in some criminal activity, knowing that the information is false, or reports the alleged occurrence of a criminal act, knowing the same did not occur.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 708.7)
2. A person commits harassment when the person, purposefully and without legitimate purpose, has personal contact with another person, with the intent to threaten, intimidate or alarm that other person. As used in this section, unless the context otherwise requires, “personal contact” means an encounter in which two or more people are in visual or physical proximity to each other. “Personal contact” does not require a physical touching or oral communication, although it may include these types of contacts.
 


45.03 DISORDERLY CONDUCT. No person shall do any of the following:
1. Fighting. Engage in fighting or violent behavior in any public place or in or near any lawful assembly of persons, provided that participants in athletic contests may engage in such conduct which is reasonably related to that sport.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 723.4 [1])
2. Noise. Make loud and raucous noise in the vicinity of any residence or public building which causes unreasonable distress to the occupants thereof.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 723.4 [2])
3. Abusive Language. Direct abusive epithets or make any threatening gesture which the person knows or reasonably should know is likely to provoke a violent reaction by another.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 723.4 [3])
4. Disrupt Lawful Assembly. Without lawful authority or color of authority, disturb any lawful assembly or meeting of persons by conduct intended to disrupt the meeting or assembly.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 723.4 [4])
5. False Report of Catastrophe. By words or action, initiate or circulate a report or warning of fire, epidemic, or other catastrophe, knowing such report to be false or such warning to be baseless.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 723.4 [5])
6. Disrespect of Flag. Knowingly and publicly use the flag of the United States in such a manner as to show disrespect for the flag as a symbol of the United States, with the intent or reasonable expectation that such use will provoke or encourage another to commit a public offense.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 723.4 [6])
7. Obstruct Use of Street. Without authority or justification, obstruct any street, sidewalk, highway, or other public way, with the intent to prevent or hinder its lawful use by others.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 723.4 [7])
 


45.04 UNLAWFUL ASSEMBLY. It is unlawful for three (3) or more persons to assemble together, with them or any of them acting in a violent manner, and with intent that they or any of them will commit a public offense. No person shall willingly join in or remain part of an unlawful assembly, knowing or having reasonable grounds to believe it is such.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 723.2)
 


45.05 FAILURE TO DISPERSE. A peace officer may order the participants in a riot or unlawful assembly or persons in the immediate vicinity of a riot or unlawful assembly to disperse. No person within hearing distance of such command shall refuse to obey.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 723.3)
 


45.06 URINATING AND DEFECATING. It is unlawful for any person to urinate or defecate onto any sidewalk, street, alley, or other public way, or onto any public or private building, including but not limited to the wall, floor, hallway, steps, stairway, doorway or window thereof, or onto public or private land.
 


45.07 DISTRIBUTING DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES. No person shall distribute samples of any drugs or medicine, or any corrosive, caustic, poisonous or other injurious substance unless the person delivers such into the hands of a competent person, or otherwise takes reasonable precautions that the substance will not be taken by children or animals from the place where the substance is deposited.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 727.1)
 


45.08 FALSE REPORTS TO OR COMMUNICATIONS WITH PUBLIC SAFETY ENTITIES. No person shall do any of the following:
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 718.6)
1. Report or cause to be reported false information to a fire department, a law enforcement authority or other public safety entity, knowing that the information is false, or report the alleged occurrence of a criminal act knowing the act did not occur.
2. Telephone an emergency 911 communications center, knowing that he or she is not reporting an emergency or otherwise needing emergency information or assistance.
3. Knowingly provide false information to a law enforcement officer who enters the information on a citation.
 


45.09 REFUSING TO ASSIST OFFICER. Any person who is requested or ordered by any magistrate or peace officer to render the magistrate or officer assistance in making or attempting to make an arrest, or to prevent the commission of any criminal act, shall render assistance as required. No person shall unreasonably and without lawful cause, refuse or neglect to render assistance when so requested.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 719.2)
 


45.10 HARASSMENT OF PUBLIC OFFICERS AND EMPLOYEES. No person shall willfully prevent or attempt to prevent any public officer or employee from performing the officer’s or employee’s duty.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 718.4)
 


45.11 INTERFERENCE WITH OFFICIAL ACTS. No person shall knowingly resist or obstruct anyone known by the person to be a peace officer, emergency medical care provider or fire fighter, whether paid or volunteer, in the performance of any act which is within the scope of the lawful duty or authority of that officer, emergency medical care provider or fire fighter, or shall knowingly resist or obstruct the service or execution by any authorized person of any civil or criminal process or order of any court. The terms “resist” and “obstruct” as used in this section do not include verbal harassment unless the verbal harassment is accompanied by a present ability and apparent intention to execute a verbal threat physically.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 719.1)
 


45.12 ABANDONED OR UNATTENDED REFRIGERATORS. No person shall abandon or otherwise leave unattended any refrigerator, ice box, or similar container, with doors that may become locked, outside of buildings and accessible to children, nor shall any person allow any such refrigerator, ice box, or similar container, to remain outside of buildings on premises in the person’s possession or control, abandoned or unattended and so accessible to children.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 727.3)
 


45.13 ANTENNA AND RADIO WIRES. It is unlawful for a person to allow antenna wires, antenna supports, radio wires or television wires to exist over any street, alley, highway, sidewalk, public way, public ground or public building without written consent of the Council.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 364.12 [2])
 


45.14 BARBED WIRE AND ELECTRIC FENCES. It is unlawful for a person to use barbed wire or electric fences to enclose land within the City limits without the written consent of the Council unless such land consists of ten (10) acres or more and is used as agricultural land.
 


45.15 DISCHARGING WEAPONS.

1. It is unlawful for a person to discharge rifles, shotguns, revolvers, pistols, guns, BB guns or other firearms of any kind within the City limits except by written consent of the Council.
2. No person shall intentionally discharge a firearm in a reckless manner.
 


45.16 THROWING AND SHOOTING. It is unlawful for a person to throw stones, bricks or missiles of any kind or to shoot arrows, rubber guns, slingshots, air rifles or other dangerous instruments or toys on or into any street, highway, alley, sidewalk, public way, public ground or public building, without written consent of the Council.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 364.12 [2])
 


45.17 CRIMINAL MISCHIEF. It is unlawful, for any person who has no right to do so, to intentionally damage, deface, alter or destroy tangible property.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 716.1)
 


45.18 DEFACING PROCLAMATIONS OR NOTICES. It is unlawful for a person intentionally to deface, obliterate, tear down, or destroy in whole or in part, any transcript or extract from or of any law of the United States or the State, or any proclamation, advertisement or notification, set up at any place within the City by authority of the law or by order of any court, during the time for which the same is to remain set up.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 716.1)
 


45.19 UNAUTHORIZED ENTRY. No unauthorized person shall enter or remain in or upon any public building, premises or grounds in violation of any notice posted thereon or when said building, premises or grounds are closed and not open to the public. When open to the public, a failure to pay any required admission fee also constitutes an unauthorized entry.
 


45.20 TRESPASSING PROHIBITED. It is unlawful for a person to knowingly trespass upon the property of another. As used in this section, the term “property” includes any land, dwelling, building, conveyance, vehicle or other temporary or permanent structure whether publicly or privately owned. The term “trespass” means one or more of the following acts:
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 716.7 and 716.8)
1. Entering Property Without Permission. Entering upon or in property without the express permission of the owner, lessee, or person in lawful possession with the intent to commit a public offense or to use, remove therefrom, alter, damage, harass, or place thereon or therein anything animate or inanimate.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 716.7 [2a])
2. Entering or Remaining on Property. Entering or remaining upon or in property without justification after being notified or requested to abstain from entering or to remove or vacate therefrom by the owner, lessee, or person in lawful possession, or by any peace officer, magistrate, or public employee whose duty it is to supervise the use or maintenance of the property.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 716.7 [2b])
3. Interfering with Lawful Use of Property. Entering upon or in property for the purpose or with the effect of unduly interfering with the lawful use of the property by others.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 716.7 [2c])
4. Using Property Without Permission. Being upon or in property and wrongfully using, removing therefrom, altering, damaging, harassing, or placing thereon or therein anything animate or inanimate, without the implied or actual permission of the owner, lessee, or person in lawful possession.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 716.7 [2d])
None of the above shall be construed to prohibit entering upon the property of another for the sole purpose of retrieving personal property which has accidentally or inadvertently been thrown, fallen, strayed, or blown onto the property of another, provided that the person retrieving the property takes the most direct and accessible route to and from the property to be retrieved, quits the property as quickly as is possible, and does not unduly interfere with the lawful use of the property.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 716.7(3))
 


45.21 FRAUD. It is unlawful for any person to commit a fraudulent practice as defined in Section 714.8 of the Code of Iowa.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 714.8)
 


45.22 THEFT. It is unlawful for any person to commit theft as defined in Section 714.1 of the Code of Iowa.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 714.1)
 


45.23 FIREWORKS. The sale, use or exploding of fireworks within the City are subject to the following:
1. Definition. The term “fireworks” includes any explosive composition, or combination of explosive substances, or articles prepared for the purpose of producing a visible or audible effect by combustion, explosion, deflagration or detonation, and specifically includes blank cartridges, firecrackers, torpedoes, skyrockets, roman candles, or other fireworks of like construction and any fireworks containing any explosive or flammable compound, or other device containing any explosive substance.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 727.2)
2. Regulations. It is unlawful for any person to offer for sale, expose for sale, sell at retail, or use or explode any fireworks; provided the City may, upon application in writing, grant a permit for the display of fireworks by a City agency, fair associations, amusement parks and other organizations or groups of individuals approved by City authorities when such fireworks display will be handled by a competent operator. No permit shall be granted hereunder unless the operator or sponsoring organization has filed with the City evidence of insurance in the following amounts:
A. Personal Injury: - $250,000.00 per person.
B. Property Damage: - $50,000.00.
C. Total Exposure: - $1,000,000.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 727.2)
3. Exceptions. This section does not prohibit the sale by a resident, dealer, manufacturer or jobber of such fireworks as are not prohibited; or the sale of any kind of fireworks if they are to be shipped out of State; or the sale or use of blank cartridges for a show or theatre, or for signal purposes in athletic sports or by railroads or trucks for signal purposes, or by a recognized military organization. This section does not apply to any substance or composition prepared and sold for medicinal or fumigation purposes.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 727.2)
 


45.24 CIGARETTES AND TOBACCO. It is unlawful for any person under eighteen (18) years of age to smoke, use, possess, purchase or attempt to purchase any tobacco, tobacco products or cigarettes. Possession of cigarettes or tobacco products by a person under eighteen years of age shall not constitute a violation of this section if said person possesses the cigarettes or tobacco products as part of the person’s employment and said person is employed by a person who holds a valid permit under Chapter 453A of the Code of Iowa and lawfully offers for sale or sells cigarettes or tobacco products.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 453A.2)
 


45.25 CONTRIBUTING TO DELINQUENCY. It is unlawful for any person to encourage any child under eighteen (18) years of age to commit any act of delinquency.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 709A.1)
 


45.26 DRUG PARAPHERNALIA.
1. As used in this section “drug paraphernalia” means all equipment, products or materials of any kind used or attempted to be used in combination with a controlled substance, except those items used in combination with the lawful use of a controlled substance, to knowingly or intentionally and primarily do any of the following:
A. Manufacture a controlled substance.
B. Inject, ingest, inhale or otherwise introduce into the human body a controlled substance.
C. Test the strength, effectiveness or purity of a controlled substance.
D. Enhance the effect of a controlled substance.
Drug paraphernalia does not include hypodermic needles or syringes if manufactured, delivered, sold or possessed for a lawful purpose.
2. It is unlawful for any person to knowingly or intentionally manufacture, deliver, sell or possess drug paraphernalia.
(Code of Iowa, Sec. 124.414)
 

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